8500 BC: Chinese history tells that hemp was used for
fibre, oil, and as medicine.
3727 BC: Cannabis called a "superior" herb in the world's first
medical text, Shen Nung's Pen Ts'ao, in China.
2700 BC: The oldest complete human body ever found was wearing a hemp
blouse with a silk like quality. The body had been buried by ice for four thousand
years, and was exposed by a heat wave.
2000 B.C. - 1400 B.C. Cannabis mentioned in the Atharvaveda (Science of
Charms) as "sacred grass". Refered to as bhang or bhanga. The
legend of Shiva, Lord of Bhang
1550BC: The Ebers Papyrus (named after George Ebers) is an ancient Egyptian
medical text (era 1,550 BC). It's the oldest known (complete) surviving
medical text book still in existence, and mentions medical marihuana (known
then as Sum-Sum-et).
1500 BC: Cannabis-using Scythians sweep through Europe and Asia, settle down everywhere, and invent the scythe.
700 B.C. - 600 B.C. The Zoroastrian Zend-Avesta, an ancient Persian
religious text of several hundred volumes, and said to have been written by
Zarathustra (Zoroaster), refers to bhang as Zoroaster's "good
500 BC: Gautama Buddha survives by eating hempseed.
450 BC: Hemp was being cultivated in the middle east for the same purposes
Herodotus records Scythians and Thracians as consuming cannabis and making
fine linens of hemp. Cannabis was thought to be an Indo-European word
specifically of Scythian Origin. The Scythians are considered largely
responsible for the spread of cannabis into Europe.
Herodotus, an early Greek ethnographer, in the 5th Century BC wrote of the
Scythians and their use of cannabis.
300 BC: Carthage and Rome
struggle for political and commercial power over hemp and spice trade
routes in Mediterranean.
100 BC: Paper made from hemp and mulberry is invented in China.
1 AD: Recognised birth year of Jesus Christ.
Dioscorides100 AD: Roman surgeon Dioscorides names the plant cannabis
sativa and describes various medicinal uses.
Pliny tells of industrial uses and writes a manual on farming hemp.
390 AD: A 14 year old girl dies in childbirth near Jerusalem. In 1993 researchers find
residue of the drug with the skeleton of the girl.The researchers said the
marijuana probably was used by a mid-wife trying to speed the birth, as
well as ease the pain. "Until now," the researchers wrote in a
letter to the journal Nature, "physical evidence of cannabis
(marijuana) use in the ancient Middle East
has not yet been obtained."
The seven researchers -- from Hebrew University, the Israel Antiquities
Authority and the National Police Headquarters forensic division -- said
references to marijuana as a medicine are seen as far back as 1,600 B.C. in
Egyptian, Assyrian, Greek and Roman writings. But physical evidence that
the hemp weed, cannabis sativa, was used for that purpose had been missing.
500 AD: First botanical drawing of hemp in Constantinopolitanus. (Latinised
version of Constantinople, then a centre
600 AD: Germans, Franks, Vikings, etc. all use hemp fibre.
1000 AD approx: Hemp was first introduced into Europe,
and by the sixteenth century it was known to be the most widely cultivated
crop in the world producing rope, sails, cloth, fuel, paper, paint, food
and medicine. The English word 'hempe' first listed in a dictionary.
1090 AD: The Assassin movement, called the "new propaganda" by its
members, was inaugurated by al-Hasan ibn-al-Sabbah (died in 1124), probably
a Persian from Tus, who claimed descent from the Himyarite kings of South Arabia. The motives were evidently personal
ambition and desire for vengeance on the part of the heresiarch."
(heresiarch: leader of heretical group) "As a young man in al-Rayy,
al-Hassan received instruction in the Batinite system, and after spending a
year and a half in Egypt
returned to his native land as a Fatimid missionary. Here in 1090 he gained
possession of the strong mountain fortress Alamut, north-west of Qazwin.
Strategically situated on an extension of the Alburz chain, 10200 feet
above sea level, and on the difficult but shortest road between the shores
of the Caspian and the Persian highlands, this "eagle's nest," as
the name probably means, gave ibn-al-Sabbah and his successors a central
stronghold of primary importance. Its possession was the first historical
fact in the life of the new order.
From Alamut the grand master with his disciples made surprise raids in
various directions which netted other fortresses. In pursuit of their ends
they made free and treacherous use of the dagger, reducing assassination to
an art. Their secret organization, based on Ismailite antecedents,
developed an agnosticism which aimed to emancipate the initiate from the
trammels of doctrine, enlightened him as to the superfluity of prophets and
encouraged him to believe nothing and dare all. Below the grand master
stood the grand priors, each in charge of a particular district. After
these came the ordinary propagandists. The lowest degree of the order
comprised the "fida'is", who stood ready to execute whatever
orders the grand master issued. A graphic, though late and secondhad,
description of the method by which the master of Alamut is said to have
hypnotized his "self-sacrificing ones" with the use of hashish
has come down to us from Marco Polo, who passed in that neighborhood in
1271 or 1272. After describing in glowing terms the magnificent garden surrounding
the elegant pavilions and palaces built by the grand master at Alamut, Polo
"Now no man was allowed to enter the Garden save those whom he
intended to be his Ashishin. There was a fortress at the entrance to the
Garden, strong enough to resist all the world, and there was no other way
to get in. He kept at his Court a number of the youths of the country, from
twelve to twenty years of age, such as had a taste for soldiering... Then
he would introduce them into his Garden, some four, or six, or ten at a
time, having first made them drink a certain potion which cast them into a
deep sleep, and then causing them to be lifted and carried in. So when they
awoke they found themselves in the Garden.
"When therefore they awoke, and found themselves in a place so
charming, they deemed that it was Paradise
in very truth. And the ladies and damsels dallied with them to their
"So when the Old Man would have any prince slain, he would say to such
a youth: 'Go thou and slay So and So; and when thou returnest my Angels
shall bear thee into Paradise. And
shouldst thou die, natheless even so will I send my Angels to carry thee
back into Paradise.'"
(from 'The Book of Ser Marco Polo, the Venetian', translated by Henry Yule,
The Assassination in 1092 of the illustrious vizir of the Saljug sultanate,
Nizam-al-Mulk, by a fida'i disguised as a Sufi, was the first of a series
of mysterious murders which plunged the Muslim world into terror. When in
the same year the Saljug Sultan Malikshah bestirred himself and sent a
disciplinary force against the fortress, its garrison made a night sortie
and repelled the besieging army. Other attempts by caliphs and sultans
proved equally futile until finally the Mongolian Hulagu, who destroyed the
caliphate, seized the fortress in 1256 together with its subsidary castles
Since the Assassin books and records were destroyed, our information about
this strange and spectacular order is derived mainly from hostile sources.
As early as the last years of the eleventh century the Assassins had
succeeded in setting firm foot in Syria
and winning as convert the Saljug prince of Aleppo, Ridwan ibn-Tutush (died in 1113).
By 1140 they had captured the hill fortress of Masyad and many others in
including al-Kahf, al-Qadmus and al-'Ullayqah. Even Shayzar (modern Sayjar)
on the Orontes was temporarily occupied by
the Assassins, whom Usamah calls Isma'ilites. One of their most famous
masters in Syria
was Rachid-al-Din Sinan (died in 1192), who resided at Masyad and bore the
title 'shakkh al-jabal', translated by the Crusades' chroniclers as
"the old man of the mountain". It was Rashid's henchmen who
struck awe and terror into the hearts of the Crusaders. After the capture
of Masyad in 1260 by the Mongols, the Mamluk Sultan Baybars in 1272 dealt
the Syrian Assassins the final blow. Since then the Assassins have been
sparsely scattered through northern Syria,
Persia, 'Uman, Zanzibar, and especially India, where they number about
150000 and go by the name of Thojas or Mowlas. They all acknowledge as
titular head the Aga Khan of Bombay, who
claims descent through the last grand master of Alamut from Isma'il, the
seventh imam, receives over a tenth of the revenues of his followers, even
in Syria, and spends
most of his time as a sportsman between Paris
Credit for entry above: THE ASSASSINS by Philip K. Hitti
From _The Book of Grass: An Anthology on Indian Hemp_, edited by George
Andrews and Simon Vinkenoog.
1150 AD: Moslems use hemp to start Europe's
first paper mill. Most paper is made from hemp for the next 700 years.
1155 AD - 1221 AD: Persian legend of the Sufi master Sheik Haidar's of
Khorasan's personal discovery of Cannabis and it's subsequent spread to
Iraq, Bahrain, Egypt and Syria. Another of the earliest written narratives
of the use of Cannabis as an inebriant.
1271 AD: The eating of Hemp was so well known that Marco Polo described its
consumption in the secret order of Hashishins, who used the narcotic to
fool initiates into thinking they had experienced the afterlife. The
Assassins were an early terrorist group. These were people with serious
political motivation. (see 1090 AD) Note that the drugs were given to
stupify, so that initiates would awaken in a fake paradise, and believe the
master had transported them there through a potion. The cannabis was not a
reward or incitement, just a means of rendering initiates unconscious.
First time reports of cannabis have been brought to the attention of Europe.
Age of Rigging1492 AD: Hempen sails, caulking and rigging ignite age of
discovery and help Columbus and his ships
Many puritans follow over the next few centuries.
1545: Hemp agriculture crosses the continent overland to Chile.
Dutch achieve Golden Age through hemp commerce. Explorers find 'wilde
hempe' in North America.
1564: King Phillip of Spain
orders hemp grown throughout his empire, from modern-day Argentina to Oregon.
1616-1654: Nicholas Culpepper (1616-1654), listed a variety of medical uses
of the common european hemp (Cannabis sativa), including anti-inflammatory,
analgesic, and antiparasitic activity
1620: Mayflower carried the Pilgrim Fathers to New Plymouth. America
beckons to many religious groups looking for a new start for their followers
to escape persecution or worldliness.
1630: John Winthrop and many Puritans migrate to America
1631: Hemp used as money throughout American colonies.
1636: Harvard founded by Puritans
1762: In the U.S. the state of Virginia
rewarded farmers with bounties for hemp culture and manufacture, and
imposed penalties upon those who did not produce it. George Washington grew
hemp for fibre and recreational use, and Thomas Jefferson acquired the
first American patent for his hemp break, a device used to separate the
hemp stalk into usable hurds and fiber with greater speed than the retting
of past. Without hemp America
could not have successfully waged the revolution, and for the next one
hundred and fifty years hemp enjoyed the position as America's
top cash crop.
1772: Samuel Taylor "Estese" Coleridge born in England.
Writes beautiful poetry, but spends his life battling opium addiction.
1807: Czar Alexander of Russia
was forced to sign the treaty of Tilser, which cut off all legal Russian trade
with Great Britain, its
allies, or any other neutral nation ship acting as agents for Great Britain.
Napoleon hoped to stop Russian hemp from reaching England, thereby destroying Britains navy by forcing it to cannibalise
sails, ropes and rigging from other ships; Napoleon belived that Britain, starved of hemp, would be forced to
end its blockade of France
and the continent. As a result of Napoleons actions, hemp, which normally
sold at twenty five pounds per tonne, reached a price of one hundred and eighteen
pounds per tonne in 1808.
Hamme1818: The old (left) coat of arms for the Belgian town of Hamme was granted on
January 31, 1818 and confirmed on May 13, 1913. The arms show on the right
half a branch of a hemp plant and on the left half a branch of a flax plant
(with blue flower). Both were important crops in the early 19th century.
Hemp was used for ropes, flax for linen.
1822: Thomas De Quincy published "Confessions of an English Opium
Eater", which became his masterpiece. In addition, he wrote numerous
essays on political, social, critical, historical and philosophical
1839: The first Opium War between Great
Britain and China. Early in the 19th cent.,
British merchants began smuggling opium into China
in order to balance their purchases of tea for export to Britain. In
1839, China enforced its
prohibitions on the importation of opium by destroying at Guangzhou
large quantity of opium confiscated from British merchants. Great Britain, which had been looking to end
restrictions on foreign trade, responded by sending gunboats to attack
several Chinese coastal cities. China,
unable to withstand modern arms, was defeated and forced to sign the Treaty
(1842) and the British Supplementary Treaty of the Bogue (1843). These
provided that the ports of Guangzhou,
Jinmen, Fuzhou, Ningbo,
and Shanghai should be open to British trade
and residence; in addition Hong Kong was
ceded to the British. Within a few years other Western powers signed
similar treaties with China
and received commercial and residential privileges, and the Western
domination of China's
treaty ports began.
It wasn't until O'Shaughnessy (a Scottish doctor, who while in India had learned about Cannabis from local
Mohammedan and Hindu physicians) returned from the Bengal
(1839) and published his findings, that the western world begin to take
notice of medical cannabis. At a time when western medicine had few if any
reliable drugs, here was an analgesic (painkiller), a sedative and
antispasmodic agent all in one. And best of all, it had a very low toxicity
rate (to this day no one has died from its use), and could be grown almost
anywhere in commercial quantities. It spread throughout the western world,
and within a few years would be a common medical ingredient.
1842: Baudelaire, 19th century French poet, translator, and literary and
art critic, received his inheritance in April 1842 and rapidly proceeded to
dissipate it on the lifestyle of a dandified man of letters, spending
freely on clothes, books, paintings, expensive food and wines, and, not
least, hashish and opium, which he first experimented with in his Paris
apartment at the Hotel Pimodan (now
the Hotel Lauzun) on the
Saint-Louis between 1843 and 1845.
1847: Mormons settle in Utah under Brigham
Young, after years of moving around since beginning in New York with Joseph Smith's vision
1850: Tree-pulp papermaking becomes more cost-effective than hemp through
the rise of assembly line manufacturing methods.
Hemp continues to be used for rope, birdseed, and other products. Constant
efforts to improve hemp and hemp products by producers and others.
The Gold Rush brings many Chinese. Opium seen as a Chinese drug. Racism
enters the equation.
Opium War1856: The second Opium War broke out following an allegedly
illegal Chinese search of a British-registered ship, the Arrow, in Guangzhou. British
and French troops took Guangzhou and Tianjin and compelled the Chinese to accept the
treaties of Tianjin (1858), to which France, Russia,
and the United States
were also party. China
agreed to open 11 more ports, permit foreign legations in Beijing, sanction Christian missionary
activity, and legalize the import of opium. China's
subsequent attempt to block the entry of diplomats into Beijing
as well as Britain's
determination to enforce the new treaty terms led to a renewal of the war
in 1859. This time the British and French occupied Beijing and burned the imperial summer
palace (Yuan ming yuan). The Beijing
conventions of 1860, by which China was forced to reaffirm
the terms of the Treaty of Tianjin and make additional concessions,
concluded the hostilities.
Opium in anglo-saxon countries was sometimes referred to as "a filthy
Chinese practice". This seems highly hypocritical when it was the west
that forced Opium upon them to maintain Tea supplies.
Alice1865: "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" was published in
1865, by Rev. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, an English writer and brilliant
mathematician, under the pen-name he had first used some nine years earlier
- Lewis Carroll. "Through the Looking Glass" followed.Although he
spent so much of his life in the academic environment, Dodgson's real
passions were always artistic. He loved the theatre and the company of
'theatricals'. He loved artists and their work. He courted the bohemian
life in a way that sometimes compromised the required dignity of his
position as an Oxford
don. Earlier, in 1861 he had become a deacon of the Anglican church, but,
despite his religious background, and in direct defiance of the laws of his
college, he refused to become a priest. Through the image of the
caterpillar with a hookah he will forever be associated with cannabis.
1869: The Prohibition Party is formed. Gerrit Smith, twice Abolitionist
candidate for President, an associate of John Brown, and a crusading
prohibitionist, declares: "Our involuntary slaves are set free, but
our millions of voluntary slaves still clang their chains. The lot of the
literal slave, of him whom others have enslaved, is indeed a hard one;
nevertheless, it is a paradise compared with the lot of him who has
enslaved himself to alcohol." [Quoted in Sinclar, op. cit. pp. 83-84]
1874: The Woman's Christian Temperance Union is founded in Cleveland. In 1883, Frances Willard a
leader of the W.C.T.U. forms the World's Woman's Christian Temperance
1882: Laws in the United
States, and the world, making
"temperance education" a part of the required course in public
schools are enacted.
The Personal Liberty League of the United States is founded to oppose
the increasing momentum of movements for compulsory abstinence from
alcohol. [Catlin, op. cit. p. 114]
1886: Congress makes temperance education mandatory in the District of Columbia,
and in territorial, military, and naval schools. By 1900, all the states
have similar laws. [Crafts et. al., op. cit. p. 72]
Queen Victoria1890:Queen Victoria"s
personal physician, J.R. Reynolds described it in 1890 as "One of the
most valuable medicines we possess." In another Lancet article
published in 1890, he described the use of cannabis indica for treating
insomnia in the senile, alcoholic delerium, neuralgia, migraine, spastic
paralysis, and convulsions. He allegedly prescribed tincture of cannabis to
Queen Victoria.herself for the treatment of menstrual cramps. Cannabis
tincture and an extract made from resin were available from Peter Squire of
in 1864, and wholesale through the Society of Apothecaries by 1871.
Chemists extracted stuff they called cannabene, cannabin tannin,
cannabinnene etc but had no idea which, if any, was the "active
ingredient" until cannabinol was isolated in 1895. THC was not
isolated until 1964.
1893: German inventor Rudolph Diesel published a paper entitled "The
Theory and Construction of a Rational Heat Engine," which described an
engine in which air is compressed by a piston to a very high pressure,
causing a high temperature. Fuel is then injected and ignited by the
compression temperature. Intended fuel is vegetable and seed oils. Vision
of a "people's engine" Petrochemical industry does not encourage
this view, and see's alternative use of seed oils instead of gasoline as
threat to future sales.
1894:The Indian Hemp Drugs Commission Report (1894) to the British
government, comprising some seven volumes and 3,281 pages, is by far the
most complete and systematic study of marijuana undertaken to date. Because
of the rarity and, perhaps, the formidable size of this document, the
wealth of information contained in it has not found its way into
contemporary writings on this subject. This is indeed unfortunate, as many
of the issues concerning marijuana being argued in the United States
today were dealt with in the Indian Hemp Drugs Commission Report.
"Viewing the subject generally, it may be added that the moderate use
of these drugs is the rule, and that the excessive use is comparatively
exceptional. The moderate use practically produces no ill effects. In all
but the most exceptional cases, the injury from habitual moderate use is
not appreciable. The excessive use may certainly be accepted as very
injurious, though it must be admitted that in many excessive consumers the
injury is not clearly marked. The injury done by the excessive use is,
however, confined almost exclusively to the consumer himself; the effect on
society is rarely appreciable. It has been the most striking feature in
this inquiry to find how little the effects of hemp drugs have obtruded
themselves on observation. The large number of witnesses of all classes who
professed never to have seen these effects, the vague statements made by
many who professed to have observed them, the very few witnesses who could
so recall a case as to give any definite account of it, and the manner in
which a large proportion of these cases broke down on the first attempt to
examine them, are facts which combine to show most clearly how little
injury society has hitherto sustained from hemp drugs " : From the
The English approach was that if people were doing something you didn't
want them to, that wasn't covered by the commandments, you taxed it and
made it expensive. Putting them in jail would only cost the government to
1895: Cannabinols isolated and extracted.
1900: Diesel runs his engine on peanut oil at World's Fair.
1909: Shanghai International Opium
Conference was held at the insistence of USA,
supported by European powers, China,
Japan, Siam and Persia.
1910: The Foster Antinarcotic Bill of 1910, the first of a series of draft
statutes that led to the Harrison Act, included cannabis. Only the vigorous
lobbying of the wholesale drug industry prevented its appearance in the
1911: An Opium Conference at the
Hague drafted the first treaty which attempted to
control opium and cocaine through world wide agreement. In that year, Henry
Finger, a California druggist newly appointed as a delegate to the Hague
conference wanted the US delegation to propose cannabis control because of
California's problem with a large
influx of Hindoos demanding cannabis indica but was told that Italy already
had a proposal.( See http://www.cfdp.ca/giffen.htm)
1912: Hague International Convention on Narcotics - to control the
production and distribution of raw and prepared opium (morphine and
cocaine); it required parties to Convention to examine the possibility of
making it a penal offence to be in illegal possession of drugs covered by
passed the first state anti-marijuana law. Mormons who had gone to Mexico in
1910 returned smoking marijuana. It was later outlawed in that state as a
result of the Utah
legislature enacting all Mormon religious prohibitions as criminal laws.
first state to enact laws against use of marijuana.
1917: George W. Schlicten patented the Hemp Decorticator; a farm-machine
that mechanically separates the fibre in the Hemp stalk. Heralds serious
threat to wood pulping industry.
1938 Assassin of Youth1920: In England the Dangerous Drugs Act came into
force. Of interest here is that while the Americans also outlawed the use
of heroin for medical purposes, the English upheld this usage and even
found the provision of opiates, in this case heroin, to addicts to be
acceptable medical practice.
The Hague treaty of 1912 was 'as leaky as a sieve' because it allowed the
states to determine for themselves when and how they would fulfil their
obligations with regard to opium, which of course kept the use of opium
legal until that time. The chemical derivatives did, however, fall under
this commitment: that their use was illegal, making these substances more
than opium, the object of the battle. To make this battle more effective
the League of Nations held two conferences
which led to two Geneva Conventions: one of 11 February and one on 19
The Conspiracy View
Also around this time,William Randolph Hearst, media mogul, billionaire and
model for Orson Welles' "Citizen Kane", campaigns against new
drug "marijuana". Most didn't realise Hemp was the same thing.
His aggressive efforts to demonize cannabis were so effective, they
continue to colour popular opinion today.
Hearst owned a good deal of timber acreage; one might say that he had the
monopoly on this market. He also had paper-mill holdings, and a national
network of newspapers and magazines to spread wildly inaccurate and
sensational stories of the evils of cannabis or "marihuana".
Other tabloids jumped on the bandwagon, printing similar stories about
crazed mexicans and negros committing hienous crimes under the influence of
The sheer number of newspapers, tabloids, magazines and film reels that
Hearst controlled enabled him to quickly and effectively inundate American
media with his propaganda. Hearst preyed on existing prejudices by
associating cannabis with Mexican workers who he said threatened to steal
American jobs and also African-Americans. With no strong voice to the
contrary, Hearst was persuasive in his appeal to prejudice.
Hearst was not alone in his efforts to demonize hemp.
The new techniques would also make hemp a more viable option for fabric and
plastics. DuPont chemicals, which at this time specialized in the chemical
manufacturing of synthetic fibre and plastics, and chemicals used in the
process of pulping paper might have seen hemp products as competition.
It was said Hearst and Lammont DuPont had a multi-million dollar deal in
the works for a joint papermaking venture. These two moguls, together with
DuPont's banker, Andrew Mellon, combined and co-ordinated their efforts to
Hearst's "yellow journalism" campaign (so called because the
paper developed through his and DuPont's methods aged and yellowed rapidly)
and the 1930 appointment of Mellon's nephew-in-law, Harry J. Anslinger, to
Commissioner of the newly created Federal Bureau of Narcotics put them in
control of US Federal drugs policy. Anslinger was a committed
The Race and Culture War View
Pot activist Jack Herer's book The
Emperor Wears No Clothes is the prime source for the hemp-conspiracy
theory. It alleges that in the mid-1930s, when the new mechanical hemp
fiber stripping machines to conserve hemp's
high-cellulose pulp finally became state of the art, available and
affordable, Hearst, with enormous holdings in timber acreage and investments
in paper manufacturing, stood to lose billions of dollars and perhaps go
bankrupt. Meanwhile, DuPont in 1937 had just patented nylon and a new
sulfate/sulfite process for making paper from wood pulp - so if hemp had
not been made illegal, 80 percent of DuPont's
business would never have materialized.
Herer, a somewhat cantankerous former marijuana-pipe salesman, deserves a
lot of credit for his cannabis activism. He was a dedicated grass-roots
agitator for pot legalization during the late 1980s, perhaps the most herb-hostile
time in recent history. Despite - an omnivorous conglomeration of newspaper
clippings and historical documents about hemp and marijuana, held together
by Herer's cannabis evangelism and
fiery screeds against prohibition - has been a bible for many pot
activists. Unearthing a 1916 Department of Agriculture bulletin about hemp
paper and a World War II short film that exhorted American farmers to grow Hemp
for Victory, Herer more than anyone else revived the idea that the cannabis
plant was useful for purposes besides getting high.
Twentieth-century cannabis prohibition first reared its
head in countries where white minorities ruled black majorities: South Africa,
where its known as dagga, banned it in 1911, and Jamaica, then a British
colony, outlawed ganja in 1913. They were followed by Canada, Britain
and New Zealand,
which added cannabis to their lists of illegal narcotics in the 1920s. Canada's pot law was enacted in 1923, several
years before there were any reports of people actually smoking it there. It
was largely the brainchild of Emily F. Murphy, a feminist but racist judge
who wrote anti-Asian, anti-marijuana rants under the pseudonym Janey
Canuck. All of this happened before Hearst, DuPont, and Anslinger appeared,
so they did not cause prohibition, even if they may have exploited it.
In the United States,
marijuana prohibition began partly as a throw-in on laws restricting
opiates and cocaine to prescription-only use, and partly in Southern and
Western states and cities where blacks and Mexican immigrants were smoking
outlawed opium and hashish dens in 1889, but did not actually prohibit
cannabis until 1935. Massachusetts began
restricting cannabis in its 1911 pharmacy law, and three other New England states followed in the next seven years.
The hemp-conspiracy theory blames that law on Hearst and DuPont's plot to suppress hemp paper and cloth.
The theory is that the invention of a hemp processor known as the decorticator
made it easier, faster and much more cost-effective to extract hemp fiber
from the stalks. In February 1938, Popular Mechanics hailed hemp as the New
Billion Dollar Crop. In response, Hearst and DuPont, scared by the prospect
of hemp's resurrection as a
competitor for their products, schemed to eliminate the plant.
However, The Emperor makes only three specific claims to support that
theory. One is the anti-marijuana propagandizing of the Hearst newspapers.
Second, it claims that Anslinger's
anti-pot crusade was on behalf of Pittsburgh
banker Andrew Mellon, who supposedly was DuPont's chief financial backer, lending the company the funds it
needed to purchase General Motors in the 1920s. And finally, The Emperor
argues that DuPont anticipated the Marihuana Tax Act in its 1937 annual