10,000-year History of Industrial Hemp and Marijuana use in the World
8,000+ BCE Use of hemp cord in
pottery identified at ancient village site dating back over 10,000
years, located in the area of modern day Taiwan. Finding hemp use and
cultivation in this date range puts it as one of the first and oldest
known human agriculture crops. As explained by Richard Hamilton in the
2009 Scientific American article on sustainable agriculture
"Modern humans emerged some 250,000 years ago, yet agriculture is a
fairly recent invention, only about 10,000 years old ... Agriculture is
not natural; it is a human invention. It is also the basis of modern
civilization." This point was also touched on by Carl Sagan in 1977
when he proposed the possibility that marijuana may have actually been
world's first agricultural crop, leading to the development of
civilization itself (see 1977, below).
6,000 BCE Cannabis seeds and oil used for food in China.
4,000 BCE Textiles made of hemp are used in China and Turkestan.
2,737 BCE First recorded use of cannabis as medicine by Emperor Shen Neng of China.
2,000-800 BCE Bhang (dried cannabis leaves, seeds and stems) is mentioned in the Hindu sacred text Atharvaveda
(Science of Charms) as "Sacred Grass", one of the five sacred plants of
India. It is used by medicinally and ritually as an offering to Shiva.
1,500 BCE Cannabis cultivated in China for food and fiber. Scythians cultivate cannabis and use it to weave fine hemp cloth.
700-600 BCE The Zoroastrian Zendavesta, an ancient Persian religious text of several hundred volumes refers to bhang as the "good narcotic."
600 BCE Hemp rope appears in southern Russia.
700-300 BCE Scythian tribes leave Cannabis seeds as offerings in royal tombs.
500 BCE Scythian couple die and are buried with two
small tents covering containers for burning incense. Attached to one
tent stick was a decorated leather pouch containing wild Cannabis seeds.
This closely matches the stories told by Herodotus. The gravesite,
discovered in the late 1940s, was in Pazryk, northwest of the Tien Shan
Mountains in modern-day Khazakstan. Hemp is introduced into Northern
Europe by the Scythians. An urn containing leaves and seeds of the
Cannabis plant, unearthed near Berlin, is found and dated to about this
time. Use of hemp products spread throughout northern Europe.
430 BCE Herodotus reports on both ritual and recreation use of Cannabis by the Scythians (Herodotus The Histories 430 B.C. trans. G. Rawlinson).
200 BCE Hemp rope appears in Greece. Chinese Book of Rites mentions hemp fabric.
100 BCE First evidence of hemp paper, invented in China.
100-0 BCE The psychotropic properties of Cannabis are mentioned in the newly compiled herbal Pen Ts'ao Ching.
0-100 CE Construction of Samaritan gold and glass paste stash box for storing hashish, coriander, or salt, buried in Siberian tomb.
23-79 Pliny the Elder's The Natural History mentions hemp rope and marijuana's analgesic effects.
47-127 Plutarch mentions Thracians using cannabis as an intoxicant.
70 Dioscorides, a physician in Nero's army, lists medical marijuana in his Pharmacopoeia.
100 Imported hemp rope appears in England.
105 Legend suggests that Ts'ai Lun invents hemp paper in China, 200 years after its actual appearance (see 100 BCE above).
130-200 Greek physician Galen prescribes medical marijuana.
200 First pharmacopoeia of the East lists medical marijuana. Chinese surgeon Hua T'o uses marijuana as an anesthetic.
300 A young woman in Jerusalem receives medical marijuana during childbirth.
570 The French queen Arnegunde is buried with hemp cloth.
500-600 The Jewish Talmud mentions the euphoriant properties of Cannabis.
850 Vikings take hemp rope and seeds to Iceland.
900 Arabs learn techniques for making hemp paper.
900-1000 Scholars debate the pros and cons of eating hashish. Use spreads throughout Arabia.
1000 Hemp ropes appear on Italian ships. Arabic physician Ibn Wahshiyah's On Poisons warns of marijuana's potential dangers.
1090-1124 In Khorasan, Persia, Hasan ibn al-Sabbah,
recruits followers to commit assassinations...legends develop around
their supposed use of hashish. These legends are some of the earliest
written tales of the discovery of the inebriating powers of Cannabis and
the use of Hashish by a paramilitary organization as a hypnotic (see
U.S. military use, 1942 below). Early 12th Century Hashish smoking
becomes very popular throughout the Middle East.
1155-1221 Persian legend of the Sufi master Sheik
Haydar's personal discovery of Cannabis and his own alleged invention of
hashish with it's subsequent spread to Iraq, Bahrain, Egypt and Syria.
Another of the ealiest written narratives of the use of Cannabis as an
1171-1341 During the Ayyubid dynasty of Egypt, Cannabis is introduced by mystic devotees from Syria.
1200 1,001 Nights, an Arabian collection of tales, describes hashish's intoxicating and aphrodisiac properties.
13th Century The oldest monograph on hashish, Zahr al-'arish fi tahrim al-hashish,
was written. It has since been lost. Ibn al-Baytar of Spain provides a
description of the psychoactive nature of Cannabis. Arab traders bring
Cannabis to the Mozambique coast of Africa.
1271-1295 Journeys of Marco Polo in which he gives
second-hand reports of the story of Hasan ibn al-Sabbah and his
"assassins" using hashish. First time reports of Cannabis have been
brought to the attention of Europe.
1300 Ethiopian pipes containing marijuana suggest the herb has spread from Egypt to the rest of Africa.
1378 Ottoman Emir Soudoun Scheikhouni issues one of the first edicts against the eating of hashish.
1526 Babur Nama, first emperor and founder of Mughal Empire learned of hashish in Afghanistan.
1532 French physician Rabelais's gargantua and Pantagruel mentions marijuana's medicinal effects.
1533 King Henry VIII fines farmers if they do not raise hemp for industrial use.
1549 Angolan slaves brought cannabis with them to the
sugar plantations of northeastern Brazil. They were permitted to plant
their cannabis between rows of cane, and to smoke it between harvests.
c. 1550 The epic poem, Benk u Bode, by the poet Mohammed Ebn Soleiman Foruli of Baghdad, deals allegorically with a dialectical battle between wine and hashish.
1563 Portuguese physician Garcia da Orta reports on marijuana's medicinal effects.
1578 China's Li Shih-Chen writes of the antibiotic and antiemetic effects of marijuana.
1600 England begins to import hemp from Russia.
1606-1632 French and British cultivate Cannabis for hemp at their colonies in Port Royal (1606), Virginia (1611), and Plymouth (1632).
1616 Jamestown settlers began growing the hemp plant for its unusually strong fiber and used it to make rope, sails, and clothing.
1621 Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy suggests marijuana may treat depression.
1600-1700 Use of hashish, alcohol, and opium spreads
among the population of occupied Constantinople. Hashish becomes a major
trade item between Central Asia and South Asia.
1753 Linnaeus classifies Cannabis sativa.
1764 Medical marijuana appears in The New England Dispensatory.
1776 Kentucky begins growing hemp.
1794 Medical marijuana appears in The Edinburgh New Dispensary.
1798 Napoleon discovers that much of the Egyptian lower
class habitually uses hashish. Soldiers returning to France bring the
tradition with them, and he declares a total prohibition.
1800- Marijuana plantations flourished in Mississippi,
Georgia, California, South Carolina, Nebraska, New York, and Kentucky.
Also during this period, smoking hashish was popular throughout France
and to a lesser degree in the US. Hashish production expands from
Russian Turkestan into Yarkand in Chinese Turkestan.
1809 Antoine Sylvestre de Sacy, a leading Arabist,
suggests a base etymology between the words "assassin" and "hashishin"
-- subsequent linguest study disproves his theory.
1840 In America, medicinal preparations with a Cannabis base are available. Hashish is available in Persian pharmacies.
1842 Irish physician O'Shaughnessy publishes cannabis research in English medical journals.
1843 French author Gautier publishes The Hashish Club.
1846 French physician Moreau publishes Hashish and Mental Illness
1850 Cannabis is added to The U.S. Pharmacopoeia.
1850-1915 Marijuana was widely used throughout United
States as a medicinal drug and could easily be purchased in pharmacies
and general stores.
1854 Whittier writes the first American work to mention cannabis as an intoxicant.
1856 British tax "ganja" and "charas" trade in India.
1857 American writer Ludlow publishes The Hasheesh Eater.
1858 French poet Baudelaire publishes On the Artificial Ideal.
1870-1880 First reports of hashish smoking on the Greek mainland.
1890 Greek Department of Interior prohibits importance,
cultivation and use of hashish. Hashish is made illegal in Turkey. Sir
J.R. Reynolds, chief physician to Queen Victoria, prescribes medical
marijuana to her.
1893-1894 The India Hemp Drugs Commission Report is
issued. 70,000 to 80,000 kg per year of hashish is legally imported into
India from Central Asia.
1906 In the U.S. the Pure Food and Drug Act is passed, regulating the labeling of products containing Alcohol, Opiates, Cocaine, and Cannabis, among others.
Early 20th Century Hashish smoking remains very popular throughout the Middle East.
1910 The Mexican Revolution caused an influx of Mexican
immigrants who introduced the habit of recreational use (instead of
it's generally medicinal use) into American society.
1914 The Harrison Act in the U.S. defined use of Marijuana (among other drugs) as a crime.
1916 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
chief scientists Jason L. Merrill and Lyster H. Dewey created paper made
from hemp pulp, which they concluded was "favorable in comparison with those used with pulp wood" in USDA Bulletin No. 404. From the book "The Emperor Wears No Clothes" by Jack Herer the
USDA Bulletin N. 404 reported that one acre of hemp, in annual rotation
over a 20-year period, would produce as much pulp for paper as 4.1
acres (17,000 m2) of trees being cut down over the same 20-year period.
This process would use only 1/7 to 1/4 as much polluting sulfur-based
acid chemicals to break down the glue-like lignin that binds the fibers
of the pulp, or even none at all using soda ash. The problem of dioxin
contamination of rivers is avoided in the hemp paper making process,
which does not need to use chlorine bleach (as the wood pulp paper
making process requires) but instead safely substitutes hydrogen
peroxide in the bleaching process. ... If the new (1916) hemp pulp paper
process were legal today, it would soon replace about 70% of all wood
pulp paper, including computer printout paper, corrugated boxes and
paper bags. However, mass production of cheap news print from hemp
had not developed in any country, and hemp was a relatively easy target
because factories already had made large investments in equipment to
handle cotton, wool, and linen, but there were relatively small
investments in hemp production.
1915-1927 In the U.S. cannabis begins to be prohibited
for nonmedical use. Prohibition first begins in California (1915),
followed by Texas (1919), Louisiana (1924), and New York (1927).
1919 The 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution banned
the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcohol and positioned
marijuana as an attractive alternative leading to an increase in use of
1920s Greek dictator Ioannis Metaxas cracks down on
hashish smoking. Hashish smuggled into Egypt from Greece, Syria,
Lebanon, Turkey, and Central Asia.
1924 Russian botanists classify another major strain of the plant, Cannabis ruderalis.
1926 Lebanese hashish production is prohibited.
1928 Recreational use of Cannabis is banned in Britain.
1930 The Yarkand region of Chinese Turkestan exports
91,471 kg of hashish legally into the Northwest Frontier and Punjab
regions of India. Legal taxed imports of hashish continue into India
from Central Asia.
1933 The U.S. congress repealed the 21st Amendment,
ending alcohol prohibition; 4 years later the prohibition of marijuana
will be in full effect.
1934-1935 Chinese government moves to end all Cannabis
cultivation in Yarkand and charas traffic from Yarkand. Hashish
production become illegal in Chinese Turkestan.
1936 The American propaganda film Reefer Madness was made to scare American youth away from using Cannabis.
1937 U.S. Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act which
criminalized the drug. In response Dr. William C. Woodward, testifying
on behalf of the AMA, told Congress that, "The American Medical Association knows of no evidence that marijuana is a dangerous drug" and warned that a prohibition "loses sight of the fact that future investigation may show that there are substantial medical uses for Cannabis."
His comments were ignored by Congress. A part of the testimony for
Congress to pass the 1937 act derived from articles in newspapers owned
by William Randolph Hearst, who had significant financial interests in
the timber industry, which manufactured his newsprint paper.
1938 Supply of hashish from Chinese Turkestan nearly
ceases. The U.S. company DuPont patented the processes for creating
plastics from coal and oil and a new process for creating paper from
1940s Greek hashish smoking tradition fades.
1941 Cannabis is removed from the U.S. Pharmacopoeia
and it's medicinal use is no longer recognized in America.
The same year the Indian government considers cultivation in Kashmir to
fill void of hashish from Chinese Turkestan. Hand-rubbed charas from
Nepal is choicest hashish in India during World War II.
1942 U.S. scientists working at the Office of Strategic
Services (OSS), the CIA’s wartime predecessor, began to develop a
chemical substance that could break down the psychological defenses of
enemy spies and POWs. After testing several compounds, the OSS
scientists selected a potent extract of marijuana as the best available
"truth serum." The cannabis concoction was given the code name TD,
meaning Truth Drug. When injected into food or tobacco cigarettes, TD helped loosen the reserve of recalcitrant interrogation subjects.
1945 Legal hashish consumption continues in India. Hashish use in Greece flourishes again.
1951 The Boggs Act and the Narcotics Control Act in the U.S. increases all drug penalties and laid down mandatory sentences.
1960 Czech researchers confirm the antibiotic and analgesic effects of cannabis.
1963 Turkish police seize 2.5 tons of hashish.
1965 First reports of the strain Cannibis afghanica and was used for hashish production in northern Afghanistan.
1967 "Smash", the first hashish oil appears. Red Lebanese reaches California.
1970-1972 Huge fields of Cannabis are cultivated for
hashish production in Afghanistan. Afghani hashish varieties introduced
to North America for sinsemilla production. Westerners bring metal sieve
cloths to Afghanistan. Law enforcement efforts against hashish begin in
1970 The US National Organization for the Reform of
Marijuana Laws (NORML) forms. That same year the Comprehensive Drug
Abuse Prevention and Control Act repealed mandatory penalties for drug
offenses and marijuana was categorized separately from other narcotics.
1971 First evidence suggesting marijuana may help glaucoma patients.
1972 The Nixon-appointed Shafer Commission urged use of
cannabis be re-legalized, but their recommendation was ignored. U.S.
Medical research picks up pace. Proposition 19 in California to legalize
marijuana use is rejected by a voter margin of 66-33%.
1973 Nepal bans the Cannabis shops and charas
(hand-rolled hash) export. Afghan government makes hashish production
and sales illegal. Afghani harvest is pitifully small.
1975 Nabilone, a cannabinoid-based medication appears.
1976 The U.S. federal government created the
Investigational New Drug (IND) Compassionate Use research program to
allow patients to receive up to nine pounds of cannabis from the
government each year. Today, five surviving patients still receive
medical cannabis from the federal government, paid for by federal tax
dollars. At the same time the U.S. FDA continues to list marijuana as
Schedule I meaning: "A high potential for abuse with no accepted medical
1977 Carl Sagan proposes that marijuana may have been
the world's first agricultural crop, leading to the development of
civilization itself: "It would be wryly interesting if in human
history the cultivation of marijuana led generally to the invention of
agriculture, and thereby to civilization." Carl Sagan, The Dragons of Eden, Speculations on the Origin of Human Intelligence p 191 footnote.
1977-1981 U.S. President Carter, including his
assistant for drug policy, Dr. Peter Bourne, pushed for
decriminalization of marijuana, with the president himself asking
Congress to abolish federal criminal penalties for those caught with
less than one ounce of marijuana.
1980s Morocco becomes one of, if not the largest,
hashish producing and exporting nations. "Border hashish" is produced in
northwestern Pakistan along the Afghan border to avoid Soviet-Afghan
1985 Hashish is still produced by Muslims of Kashgar
and Yarkland in Northwest China. In the U.S. the FDA approves
dronabinol, a synthetic THC, for cancer patients.
1986 President Reagan signed the Anti-Drug Abuse Act,
reinstating mandatory minimums and raising federal penalties for
possession and distribution and officially begins the U.S. international
"war on drugs."
1987 Moroccan government cracks down upon Cannabis cultivation in lower elevations of the Rif Mountains.
1988 U.S. DEA administrative law Judge Francis Young
finds, after thorough hearings, that marijuana has a clearly established
medical use and should be reclassified as a prescriptive drug. His
recommendation is ignored.
1992 In reaction to a surge of requests from AIDS
patients for medical marijuana, the U.S. government closes the
Compassionate Use program. That same year the pharmaceutical medication
dronabinol is approved for AIDS-wasting syndrome.
1993 Cannabis eradication efforts resume in Morocco.
1994 Border hashish still produced in Pakistan. Heavy
fighting between rival Muslim clans continues to upset hashish trade in
1995 Introduction of hashish-making equipment and appearance of locally produced hashish in Amsterdam coffee shops.
1996 California (the first U.S. state to ban marijuana
use, see 1915) became the first U.S. State to then re-legalize medical
marijuana use for people suffering from AIDS, cancer, and other serious
illnesses. A similar bill was passed in Arizona the same year. This was
followed by the passage of similar initiatives in Alaska, Colorado,
Maine, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Washington D.C., Hawaii,
Maryland, New Mexico, Rhode Island, and Vermont.
1997 The American Office of National Drug Control
Policy commissioned the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to conduct a
comprehensive study of the medical efficacy of cannabis therapeutics.
The IOM concluded that cannabis is a safe and effective medicine,
patients should have access, and the government should expand avenues
for research and drug development. The federal government completely
ignored its findings and refused to act on its recommendations.
1997-2001 In direct contradiction to the IOM
recomendations, President Clinton, continuing the Regan and Bush "war on
drugs" era, began a campaign to arrest and prosecute medical cannabis
patients and their providers in California and elsewhere.
1999 Hawaii and North Dakota unsuccessfully attempt to
legalize hemp farming. The U.S. DEA reclassifies dronabinol as a
schedule III drug, making the medication easier to prescribe while
marijuana itself continues to be listed Schedule I as having "no
accepted medical use."
2000 Legalization initiative in Alaska fails.
2001 Britain's Home Secretary, David Blunkett, proposes
relaxing the classification of cannabis from a class B to class C.
Canada adopts federal laws in support of medical marijuana, and by 2003
Canada becomes the first country in the world to approve medical
2001-2009 Under President G.W. Bush the U.S. federal
government intensified its "war on drugs" targeting both patients and
doctors across the state of California.
2005 Marc Emery, a Canadian citizen and the largest
distributor of marijuana seeds into the United States from approximately
1995 through July 2005 was on the FBI #1 wanted drug list for years and
was eventually indicted by the U.S. DEA. He was extradited from Canada
for trial in the U.S. in May 2010.
2009 President Obama made steps toward ending the very
unsuccessful 20-year "war on drugs" initiated during the Regan
administration by stating that individual drug use is really a public
health issue, and should be treated as such. Under his guidance, the
U.S. Justice Department announced that federal prosecutors will no
longer pursue medical marijuana users and distributors who comply with
2010 Marc Emery of Vancouver, BC, Canada, was sentenced
on September 10 in a U.S. District Court in Seattle to five years in
prison and four years of supervised release for "conspiracy to
manufacture marijuana" (eg. selling marijuana seeds).
2010 Proposition 19 to legalize marijuana in California
is placed back on the ballet (named The Regulate, Control and Tax
Cannabis Act of 2010). Current voter poles suggest that the proposition
has about 50% population support and will likely win or loose by a
margin of only 2%.
Oct 2010 Just weeks before the November 02 California
election on Prop. 19 Attorney General Eric Holder said federal
authorities would continue to enforce U.S. laws that declare the drug is
illegal, even if voters approve the initiative, stating "we will
vigorously enforce the (Controlled Substances Act) against those
individuals and organizations that possess, manufacture or distribute
marijuana for recreational use."
Nov 2010 California Proposition 19, also known as the
Regulate, Control and Tax Cannabis Act of 2010, was narrowly defeated by
53.6% of the vote. This would have legalized various marijuana-related
activities in California, allowing local governments to regulate these
activities, permitting local governments to impose and collect
marijuana-related fees and taxes, and authorizing various criminal and
Nov 2012 The States of Colorado and Washington legalize
marijuana / cannabis for recreational use; promises are made to the
people that these new initiatives will have no impact on medical
marijuana in those states. The country of Uruguay legalizes marijuana /
cannabis for recreational use. The US District of Columbia
decriminalizes personal use and possession of marijuana / cannabis.
July 07, 2014 Cannabis City
becomes Seattle's very first legal marijuana shop for over-the-counter
purchase & recreational use. This generated world-wide media
attention and a serious discussion over the legalization of marijuana
and a possible end to the American "drug war." The first purchase, by
Deb Green a 65-year old marathon-running grandmother from Ballard, is
part of the collection of the Museum of History and Industry in Seattle, Washington.
Nov 2014 The States of Alaska and Oregon legalize
marijuana / cannabis for recreational use; the States of California,
Nevada, Arizona, Hawaii and Massachusetts all begin to draft
July 24, 2015 With the passage of Senate Bill 5052 Washington State medical marijuana comes fully under the control of the newly re-named Washington Liquor and Cannabis Board (LCB).
Adapted from the following sources:
Understanding Marijuana, a New Look at the Scientific Evidence by Mitch Earleywine
The Emperor Wears No Clothes by Jack Herer